Applied Crime Analysis. A Social Science Approach to Understanding Crime, Criminals, and Victims
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Attempts have thus far been made to address this concern [8,9], redirecting inquiries about precipitation from any form of blame to attempts to understand the criminal event in its totality. An example the author uses often is the negotiation that stalking victims often engage in to try and end harassment. It could be said that the victim precipitated further stalking by demonstrating that if the stalker continue, the victim will make another meeting with them to plead their case. Nowhere here are we blaming the victim as they are simply doing what they think will work.
But a threat manager on will view this as a behaviour worthy of change if the victim truly wants the stalking to stop. Because of this, any attempt to understand crime will be incomplete without understanding the full gamut of behaviours engaged in by all parties, and any characterisication of the offender-victim dyad as black and white will be largely incorrect. Studying precipitation allows us to understand more about how the victim and offender are connected. Whether compiling a victimology or doing a thorough analysis of a criminal event such as an Applied Crime Analysis or ACA, see Petherick et al.
This examination may help understand issues relating to offender motivation and intent, among other possible insights. Perhaps the most danger of aligning victim precipitation and victim blame comes in the form of legal attempts to understand victim and offender roles. This may be in the form of the so-called partial defences, such as provocation, of the full defences, such as self defence. If there is a problem with doing this from the point of view of understanding the various roles in the crime, then it would be reasonable to assert that your problem is with the law, not with the theory of victim precipitation per se.
While this may be a problem for some, the outcome of any cases will likely hang on a large number of factors, only one of which is any identified precipitation.
What is more, it could be said that considering the actions of the victim is only fair, giving the common but-for argument used in legal discourse. Studying precipitation helps understand risk factors related not only to the initial victimisation but also to possible re-victimisation. This means that those maladaptive behaviours which lead to crime are more likely to be repeated. Therefore, identifying and understanding the root cause of these can be useful in providing primary, secondary, and tertiary intervention so as to reduce or eliminate the harm or loss experienced by victims.
Indeed much of the work done by the author in helping victims of stalking has been in demonstrating the role their own behaviour has played and how to change this so as to reduce or totally eliminate the intrusions. Victim precipitation has been used in our understanding of victimisation for over sixty years or so now, during which time it has been studied and criticised.
Research shows that precipitation occurs with some frequency, which one would consider enough of a reason to continue with study of the phenomenon. Critics, however, argue that precipitation is tantamount to victim blaming and that, at the very least, use of the term and the theory behind it should stop. The purpose of this article and the works done by this author and others is to show that victim precipitation is still useful in understanding crime, and that beyond concerns about blame, may actually provide a positive contribution to reducing crime and victimisation.
At the very least we cannot profess to truly know what happened in a crime unless a full accounting of both the victim and offender behaviour has been undertaken. Like it or not, victim precipitation will provide part of this understanding. I would like to thank Natasha Petroff, Juli Jalil, and Claire Ferguson, fellow authors on the full paper for their assistance in bringing my ideas about victim precipitation to form.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Withdrawal Policies Publication Ethics. Short Communication Volume 5 Issue 2. Go to This textbook is essential reading for upper undergraduate students enrolled in courses on psychological criminology, criminal psychology, and the psychology of criminal behaviour. Designed with the reader in mind, student-friendly and innovative pedagogical features support the reader throughout.
Psychosocial Criminology demonstrates how a psychosocial approach can illuminate the causes of particular crimes, challenging readers to re-think the similarities and differences between themselves and those involved in crime.
The book critiques existing psychological and sociological theories before outlining a more adequate understanding of the criminal offender. It sheds new light on a series of crimes - rape, serial murder, racial harassment , 'jack-rolling' mugging of drunks , domestic violence - and contemporary criminological issues such as fear of crime, cognitive-behavioural interventions and restorative justice. Gadd and Jefferson bring together theories about identity, subjectivity and gender to provide the first comprehensive account of their psychoanalytically inspired approach.
For each topic, the theoretical perspective is supported by individual case studies, which are designed to facilitate the understanding of theory and to demonstrate its application to a variety of criminological topics.
Quantitative methods in criminology
This important and lucid book is written primarily for upper level undergraduates, postgraduates and teachers of criminology. It is particularly useful for students undertaking a joint degree in criminology and psychology. It will also appeal to critical psychologists, psychoanalysts, students of biographical methods and those pursuing social work training.
Part one deals with behavioral profiling, and covers a variety of critical issues from the history of profiling and the theoretical schools of thought to its treatment in the mainstream media.
This updated edition includes new sections on the problems of induction, metacognition in criminal profiling, and investigative relevance. Part two deals more specifically with a number of types of serial crime including stalking, rape, murder, and arson. Chapters on each of these crimes provide definitions and thresholds, and discussions of the offenders, the crime, and its dynamics.
Considerations for behavioral profiling and investigations and the development of new paradigms in each area are interwoven throughout. Topics are conceptually and practically related since profiling has typically seen most application in serial crimes and similar investigations. The unique presentation of the book successfully connects the concepts and creates links to criminal behavior across crimes—murder, sexual assault, and arson—something no other title does. The connection of serial behavior to profiling, the most useful tool in discovering behavior patterns, is also new to the body of literature available and serves to examine the ideal manner in which profiling can be used in conjunction with behavioral science to positively affect criminal investigations.
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New arrivals. Most approaches to crime analysis focus on geographical crime mapping, which is helpful in identifying crime clusters and allocating police resources, but does not explain why a particular crime took place. Applied Crime Analysis presents a model that brings statistical anchoring, behavioral psychopathology, and victimology from the social sciences together with physical and crime scene evidence to provide a complete picture of crime.
This hands-on guide takes theoretical principles and demonstrates how they can be put into practice using real case examples. Presents a model that takes social science concepts, including statistical anchoring, behavioral psychopathology, and victimology and connects them with crime scene evidence to examine and analyze crime Puts crime analysis theory into practice with real-world examples highlighting important concepts and best practice Includes a report writing chapter to demonstrate how this approach can strengthen criminal cases and succeed in court Instructor materials include a Test Bank, Powerpoint lecture slides, and Instructor's Guide for each chapter.
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Introduction to Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
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More related to crime. See more. The Psychology of Criminal Conduct: Edition 6. James Bonta. The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Sixth Edition, provides a psychological and evidence-informed perspective of criminal behavior that sets it apart from many criminological and mental health explanations of criminal behavior. Doris Layton MacKenzie. This book focuses on the importance of incorporating both sociological and psychological viewpoints in the understanding of criminal behavior.
It identifies and explains emerging criminal offenders within the criminal justice system, examining the individual differences that make different types of offenders unique. An Introduction to Criminal Psychology: Edition 2. Russil Durrant. This book offers a clear, up-to-date, comprehensive, and theoretically informed introduction to criminal psychology, exploring how psychological explanations and approaches can be integrated with other perspectives drawn from evolutionary biology, neurobiology, sociology, and criminology. Drawing on examples from around the world, it considers different types of offences from violence and aggression to white-collar and transnational crime, and links approaches to explaining crime with efforts to prevent crime and to treat and rehabilitate offenders.
Psychosocial Criminology. David Gadd. It should be required reading on all undergraduate and post-graduate criminology courses. A truly innovative take on some well established criminological dilemmas. Psychology and Crime. Francis Pakes.