Evolution of 3G Networks: The Concept, Architecture and Realization of Mobile Networks Beyond UMTS
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Since the project is currently in progress, it has put itself some specific goals, much of which is leaning around upgrading UMTS to a technology name fourth generation mobile communications technology, essentially a wireless broadband Internet system with voice and other services built on top. The project was aimed as the standard technology for 2. The system profile contains a comprehensive list of features that the equipment is required or allowed to support As a result, WiBro offers the same capabilities and features of Mobile WiMAX.
It describes this technology as an alternative to cable and DSL and a standards-based technology enabling and allowing the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access. In a prevailing market, operators are more interested and involved in using WiMAX for low cost, low expense voice transport and delivery of services. WiMAX has a two stage evolution steps. First, the expansion of the overall fixed wireless market will not going to happen as a result of WiMAX technology, slow migration of purchasing behavior from proprietary equipment to WiMAX equipment.
In adopting and implementing WiMAX equipment, service providers will be skeptical pending and until prices drop to the point where service providers cannot manage to pay to disregard WiMAX. Currently, users will see the beginning of the 2nd stage of WiMAX, which is the dawn of metro area portability. Since IEEE The design parameters of the specification include support for vehicular mobility up to Km per hour. This criterion will support use in fleet cars and trucks, as well as in the high-speed commuter trains in use throughout much of the world.
Whereas Like Both Higher efficiency uplinks can be beneficial to those business users who must perform large data synchronizations or uploads to central corporate systems from their mobile systems. The Thus, It has been suggested that data rates up to Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for low mobility should be the target value. These data rates suggest higher spectral efficiencies and lower cost per bit will be key requirements for such future systems.
Additional important and expected features are likely to be increased flexibility of mobile terminals and networks, multimedia services, and high-speed data connections. Future convergence systems will clearly be another feature. Based on these visions and characteristics of the 4th generation 4G for future wireless telecommunication, new spectrum allocation issue, and technology feasibility, the advent of 4G service will bring a number of changes of competition environment, regulation and policy as well as service change into future wireless communication.
Accordingly, it is very important we expect what kinds of possibility we have for the 4G service to prepare well. In the on-going 4G studies in the standardization bodies and relative industries, one of the aims is to establish an integral wireless system that would seamlessly connect the enhanced forms of existing 3G wireless systems such as WCDMA with HSDPA.
In this scenario, existing carriers will maintain present customer base and services are integrated 4G. On the other hand, however, it has become possible by technological innovation that non-3G wireless services develop as competitors against 3G services such as WiMAX, or further enhanced IEEE standards.
In addition, individuals and organizations have started providing open and free wireless communication services by opening up, through various technologies. Figure 2 shows that these different evolution path toward 4G. For the scenarios we provided in the paper, we assumed that the advent of 4G service will be after In order to forecast the form of realization of 4G systems, we construct four scenarios in the paper. To support broadband service there will be an additional spectrum band with current 3G spectrum band.
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In this scenario, 3G incumbent service providers will maintain current subscribers and 3G services will be integrated to 4G. Moreover, there will be a possibility that IEEE In this scenario incumbent service providers based on 3G get smaller market power and there will be a chance for new service providers which control current subscriber connections. In this scenario, a competition structure in the market will be shifted and changed. They are in a complementary relationship with each other.
By the SDR software defined radio technology, subscribers will get flexibility between different services. Additionally, there could be s new mobile access service as well in a new spectrum band. In this scenario, a number of different service providers will compete for the leadership break out upon introduction of 4G 3. Arrival of wireless IP phones utilizing high quality VoIP through various networks would enable free transmission services to absorb the need of both voice calls and multimedia service so that handheld makers will get much power than service providers based on the Software defined Radio SDR technology.
These handheld makers will lead service integration including free transmissions by developing their own multi-mode handsets that would not require reliance upon particular operators. Therefore, in this scenario, service providers would get limited market such as high quality- sensitive business users. However, handheld manufacturers and contents providers regard the free transmission market that secures subscribers as important, and develop unique products and services that would appeal to the users. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
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This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 16 August Ken's Tech Tips. Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 7 April Hutchison Telecommunications Australia Limited.
Africa Outlook Magazine. Retrieved 3 February National Audit Office. Retrieved 6 September May Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 15 October Tech In Asia. Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 24 June Goodman 13 June IEEE Wireless com. Polytechnic Institute of New York University. European Commission. Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Pools that cover only a fraction of the actual IPR for a standard are not very useful. It is essential that the large licensees sign up.
PCC must ensure the bearer on the access network matches service layer resources and operator policy and user subscription permissions. The control plane suffers scalability and QoS issues. PMIP does not act as a bearer establishment protocol.
The MM protocol requires new interfaces. In addition to inter-entity, inter-layer protocols, key single nodes-in-the-loop prevent scalability. Anchor points illustrate the concept of key single nodes in mobile system. Anchor points allocate IP addresses and establish tunnels.
The anchor points update contexts and use them to filter and route user traffic to and from end terminals. Network elements incl. To increase the number of maintained simultaneous active contexts, operators must install new equipment or upgrade old equipment with more capacity.
The state and context maintenance leads to bottlenecks, since any single entity has finite physical resources. Single nodes with critical functions for the mobile system become potential bottlenecks.
The key nodes either maintain contexts or lie on the data path, which makes them potential bottlenecks. Bokor writes "mobile architectures under standardization e. Dauod writes "Due to their centralized design, current mobile network architectures as well as IMS layer will not be able to handle the increasing number of mobile users consuming high bitrate services" [ Daoud ].
The eNodeB allows an almost complete distribution of radio and handover control mechanisms and direct logical interfaces for inter-eNodeB communications. LTE allows temporary traffic forwarding between neighboring eNodeB during handover events, which provides intra-domain mobility. Traffic forwarding and inter-gateway mobility operations, unfortunately, remain centralized thanks to the fact that the complex interactions of the S-GW, PDN-GW, Local Mobility Anchor and Home Agent HA maintain and switch a centralized, hierarchical and overlapping system of tunnels towards mobile nodes.
The system manifests a centralized, un-scalable data plane and a control plane with non-optimal routes, overhead, high end-to-end E2E packet delay even in case of motionless users , centralized context maintenance and single point of failures. Even if these architectures remove some of the intermediate nodes, the first IP router is still centralized and manages a high number of users [ Daoud ]. Systems required expensive, dedicated hardware to vocode and compress voice transmissions. System architects placed these devices in central locations, to share the expense over a large number of users.
The compression allowed engineers to send fewer bits over the backhaul connecting the core network to the base. A central anchor prepares downlink data and distributes to a number of base stations via simultaneous TX over the wireless link.