Stormwater Activity Book An Activity Guide For Stormwater Pollution Education.

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NOTE: These criteria are intended to lead to a determination that the type, intensity, and extent of industrial activities are unlikely to generate discharges of pollutants of a kind and a quantity that may cause or contribute to water quality problems in receiving waters. These are committee suggestions, but EPA should develop concrete and implementable criteria conditions. CAS; Order No. They are authorized to evaluate SCM implementation and pollutant sources; prepare technical reports, action plans, and extension requests when exceedances persist; and evaluate permit coverage eligibility for new facilities to discharge to impaired waters.

If judged to be noncompetent, they can have their certifying eligibility revoked. All facili- risk category. An inspector certification program would ties with benchmark monitoring should also conduct provide a means to certify and track the credentials of industry-wide monitoring for pH, TSS, and COD, in the inspector, promote inspector accountability, and addition to the currently required visual monitoring of help inspectors stay current with the latest develop- stormwater discharge and routine site inspections by ments, skills, and technologies available to promote facility staff.

MSGP permit compliance. Enhanced Monitoring Category 4 Industry-wide Monitoring Category 2 A fourth category of enhanced monitoring is The committee recommends that the MSGP envisioned for industrial facilities with the highest risk continue to have a category of facilities that are not for discharging pollutants that may adversely impact subject to sector-specific benchmark monitoring based surface waters.

This designation should be based on on a determination that they do not have the poten- past repeated exceedances of benchmarks e. However, the committee recommends that all inspections of Category 1 facilities, or recommenda- facilities without sector-specific benchmark monitor- tions of the permitting authority for sites that are large ing conduct industry-wide monitoring for pH, TSS, and complex with high pollutant discharge potential and COD, as discussed in Chapter 2, in addition to or where TMDL development and implementation the currently required visual monitoring of stormwater merits additional monitoring.

The largest facilities will discharge and routine site inspections by facility staff. Complex mends that EPA conduct data and literature reviews sites could include those with multiple outfalls and prior to the next permit renewal and, as a part of each varying land uses throughout the industrial site or high- permit renewal, determine whether benchmark moni- risk chemicals used in exposed areas.

Stormwater Pollution & Green Infrastructure Solutions

For sites with repeated exceedances, facili- ments for each sector should be revised. Marcus, EPA, personal communication, be expected to develop and implement a sampling These permittees are classified within sectors for program that is spatially and temporally representative which it has been determined that potential pollutant of stormwater discharges from all parts of the facility levels warrant such monitoring and SCMs are reason- where industrial activities are conducted.

Activity Pages

This informa- ably available for additional pollutant reduction see tion may be needed to determine whether and where Table The committee recommends ongoing use additional stormwater control measures are warranted, of this category. Nevertheless, the specific benchmark including moving exposed industrial activities under monitoring requirements should be updated based on cover or enhanced treatment. The committee encourages determine compliance, some consideration is needed EPA to add both enhanced and reduced levels of regarding extreme storms.

EPA should establish a monitoring to the existing program. Under facilities and eliminate some of the most suspect, extreme conditions, SCM performance will be compro- unreliable monitoring data. This approach also ensures mised and stormwater bypass will occur. It is reasonable that high-risk industries that are more likely to be to expect that the discharge of stormwater pollutants significant sources of stormwater pollution invest in associated with industrial activity and the effectiveness the necessary monitoring to confirm that SCMs are of stormwater control measures implemented are most effective in reducing pollutants and risks to receiving representative for water quality purposes when the waters.

In total, this proposed framework is expected sampling is conducted on discharges resulting from to reduce the monitoring burden on the lowest-risk frequent storm events and not large extreme events. This criterion may be a storm training, and data management discussed in this chap- of a certain return frequency such as a year storm, ter, the tiered approach is also expected to increase the or a multiple of the 90th percentile rainfall depth, or a usefulness of the data collected toward improving multiple of the long-term average rainfall depth for the the management of industrial stormwater.

Using nonrepresentative storm criteria, a permit- tee would either not submit EMC data from storms Exemptions, Additions, and Other Permitting that exceed the criterion or these data would not be Alternatives evaluated against the benchmarks. Full-storm data can provide a No Exposure much more complete picture of the industrial storm- water discharge from a site. Certification so that the data are consistent and useful both at a site requires facility owners to confirm no-exposure condi- level and on a watershed basis.

The current MSGP includes several levels of The committee agrees that monitoring is not monitoring based on expected sector-specific storm- needed at facilities with no exposure but recommends. Maryland is an example of a Monitoring jurisdiction that currently requires third-party verifica- tion of no exposure.

Education at the Watershed Center

Under the AIM process still to be developed and the enhanced monitoring category envisioned within the tiered framework for large, complex sites with Effluent Limitation Guidelines repeated benchmark exceedances, there are opportuni- As discussed in Chapter 1, EPA has established ties to use advanced tools and analyses to better under- effluent limitation guidelines ELGs for 10 subsectors stand water quality impacts from individual facilities. This ligand model, may require monitoring of receiving ELG monitoring, required by law, would supplement water flows or quality, more complex sampling tech- the MSGP monitoring envisioned in Table Nevertheless, for facilities struggling with repeated exceedances, these Individual Stormwater Permit Monitoring advanced tools and analyses can clarify where further In its original regulatory strategy for industrial SCMs are necessary to protect receiving water quality.

Federal regulations empower are applied at the point of discharge without dilution. Individual permits can also be struc- the discretion of the permitting authority.

Types of Bioswales

This stricter enforcement of pollutant done by EPA and would be challenging, given the state- exceedances can be helpful for sites that represent a to-state variability in how mixing-zone allowances are high public concern or that raise environmental justice included as part of state water quality standards and the issues.

However, facilities that individual permit.

Dissolved metals require field or laboratory filtra- the impact of stormwater runoff on receiving waters. In a number of stormwater studies, a significant Jirka et al. Pitt et al. Differences Alternative Metals Benchmarks in stormwater chemistry, receiving water chemistry, temperature, and sediment composition will affect the The MSGP requires total metals analyses fraction of metals that are bound or dissolved Weiner, rather than dissolved , but questions have emerged Both higher dissolved fraction Clary et al. However, sampling for dissolved metals requires more complex Dissolved Metals.

Dissolved metals are more biologi- sampling methodology, including filtering within cally available than particulate-bound metals and are 15 minutes of sampling. Because rapid filtering for dis- more important in assessing pollutant risk. According solved metals puts an additional burden on industry, the to EPA b , committee does not recommend that dissolved metals The primary mechanism for toxicity to organisms analyses be required for all permittees covered by the that live in the water column is by adsorption to or MSGP, but should be an option if all proper sampling uptake across the gills; this physiological process procedures are followed.

This is not to say that particulate metal is nontoxic, only that Biotic Ligand Model. As discussed in Chapter 2, the particulate metal appears to exhibit substantially Biotic Ligand Model BLM is an aquatic toxicol- less toxicity than does dissolved metal. Lethal accumulation stormwater permits in the system, and the eventuality values of metals on the gill surface, when fish toxicity of self-reporting monitoring data into the system has is being considered, are used to predict lethal met- taken years.

Raising Awareness

Prior to , monitoring was often As with dissolved metals discussed in the previous submitted in paper format, making review of these data section, the MSGP should allow those who exceed and permit compliance cumbersome and staff intensive. However, the facility would need 1, covered facilities required to perform benchmark to do additional sampling beyond the current MSGP monitoring submitted their results electronically and requirements to acquire the data needed by the BLM.

Data Watershed-based collaborative relationships among collected outside of the MSGP have no single or linked industries, municipalities, and other dischargers could repository for storage and public access.

Multiple dischargers could combine resources to been limited in their ability to receive, review, and appropriately characterize the necessary water quality respond to MSGP monitoring due to staffing short- parameters over a range of flows, seasonal variations, falls. However, many states reported that they do have and other important conditions. With these data, BLM the capacity to review data electronically and that modeling could be completed to establish watershed- digital reporting improves the effectiveness of staff specific benchmark concentrations for copper for all oversight, particularly in states with limited staffing.

This characterization Automated searchable data systems streamline envi- procedure for copper and the BLM has been done in ronmental compliance. Collaborative monitoring autogenerate reminders and compliance advisories. The could be expanded to other pollutants that need receiv- level of electronic reporting is increasing as permittees ing water quality information to determine discharge become aware of and adept at electronic reporting, state concentrations.

Two particular advan- tages arising from improving data management tools Submitting, managing, and reviewing data col- are an improved capacity to screen data automatically lected under the MSGP has been challenging.

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It could not address the need to Screening for Errors and Omissions enter the type and numbers of sources and reporting against benchmarks instead of enforceable numeric The new era of automated data systems and elec- limits. Illegible discharge reports are ter permitting EPA, , p. The transition eliminated. Permittees enter results into screens pre- to an updated national data system, the inclusion of populated with information on outfalls, sampling fre-. If consistent units for quick illustration of query results.

The systems made under the MSGP. A reducing errors see Appendix D. More complete information regarding whether a A quick temporal analysis can be made using this facility did in fact report a discharge during the moni- visualization for lead. Given that EPA only included toring period is becoming available. This may be increase. Altare, California Water Boards, personal communication, The commit- pling, and analysis technology that can provide tee also recommends that EPA develop visualization more or better-quality information for similar or tools that can be used by others to easily examine data reduced costs and consider these in future revisions for patterns, trends, and correlations.

Stormwater not warranted based on the methods used to derive monitoring data display variability that originates from benchmark thresholds. Multiple composite sampling many different sources, including the variability of techniques are available that provide more consistent precipitation within and among storms and changes and reliable quantification of stormwater pollutant dis- in operations over the course of time. In this chapter, charges compared to a single grab sample. Composite the committee recommends improvements in sampling samplers have become common in stormwater moni- design and procedures, laboratory analysis protocols, toring as experience with this approach has increased and data management to reduce error and improve the and costs have declined, and the EMCs that result reliability of monitoring results to support improved from composite sampling may reduce the likelihood of stormwater management.

Composite sampling is not appropriate for stormwater monitoring, sampling, and analysis pollutants for which the results may vary over time with. The committee proposes four categories: Quarterly stormwater event samples collected over 1 year are inadequate to characterize industrial 1.

General Construction (Storm Water): UPDES Permits - Utah Department of Environmental Quality

Inspection only. Low-risk facilities could opt for stormwater discharge or describe industrial SCM permit-term inspection by a certified inspector or performance over the permit term. Under the MSGP, the permitting authority in lieu of monitoring. For permittees with trial activity , recognizing that size may not fully average results that meet the benchmark, the MSGP represent the risk profile, or more accurately based should require a minimum of continued annual sam- on a detailed assessment of the type and intensity pling, to ensure appropriate stormwater management of industrial activities conducted on site, or a hybrid throughout the remainder of the permit term.