Test and Evaluation of Avionics and Weapon Systems
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It provides test engineers with real-time displays of selected parameters.
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- Memory systems and pipelined processors.
This system also supports post-flight analysis. For the test and evaluation of the LCA flight control system, two independent test platforms, viz. It simulates inputs, injects faults and gathers frame-wise outputs so that software verification and validation tests can be done automatically. The ETS has the capability to interface with the actual hardware actuators, sensors, pilot stick etc. The iron bird rig used for complete validation of IFCS with the aircraft dynamics in the loop has the capability to interface with the actuators and pilot stick etc.
The mini bird rig, on the other hand, interfaces with one of each type of hardware actuators, the rest being simulated by software models. The mini bird rig is used for hardware-software integration of DFCC and system integration tests. The LCA IFCS is undergoing validation tests simultaneously in several test platforms including the pilot-in-the-loop real-time simulator RTS in which the flight control laws are evaluated for correctness and adequacy.
The survivability of a combat aircraft against sophisticated radar guided weapon systems can be enhanced only by equipping the aircraft with advanced electronic support measure ESM and electronic countermeasure ECM systems. The integrated EW suite performs the basic functions of threat identification and effective electronic countermeasure action besides providing the pilot with a cue to initiate additional evasive measures.
DRDO is actively pursuing the development of advanced component, subsystem, software and integration technologies of importance to futuristic EW systems. Several types of fighter aircraft platforms have been upgraded with modern EW equipment. Range-on-Wheels is a unique facility conceived for the evaluation of airborne EW systems during development, user acceptance and system enhancement phases. It comprises six mobile ground stations, viz.
Airborne surveillance platform ASP is one of the key force multipliers in the modern war scenario. It is designed to handle 50 targets. It features a hybrid navigation system and the secure communication and data links. The antenna used in the rotodome of ASP is a low side lobe slotted wave guide planar array. The antenna features very low side lobe levels and a narrow beam width in azimuth.
It handles high power better than 3. For housing the primary and the secondary IFF antennas, an ellipsoidal structure 7. It largely comprises composites and aluminium alloy parts. The indigenous rotodome has since been successfully fabricated and flight tested on the ASP system. The rotodome is driven by a hydraulic servo system using aircraft hydraulic power.
Test and Evaluation of Aircraft Avionics and Weapon Systems | AIAA Education Series
Airborne Data Processor. The ARDP correlates the target plots from scan to scan to maintain the target tracks. It also performs the correlation of target information obtained from SSR and endorsement with the PR track information. Integrated Navigation System.
The ASP is guided by a high accuracy navigation system, which consists of an inertial navigation system INS and a Doppler navigation system. The velocity drifts of INS are contained by Doppler velocities using a Kalman filter, resulting in good navigation accuracy required for long duration flight of ASP. Comprehensive capabilities have been established in all aspects of flight control design and engineering for unmanned air vehicles UAVs which include design of control laws, flight control electronics, sensors and actuators.
Digital processors, software and analog flight control electronics and electromechanical actuators have been developed. The flight control electronics FCE for Lakshya aircraft employs an analog electronic design backed by an ASIC to perform flight control and recovery functions of the aircraft. In addition to altitude stabilisation and other flight control functions, the FCE also provides command and autopilot modes. A single LRU integrated avionics package IAP has been developed to perform flight control, navigation and mission functions of Nishant aircraft.
The digital flight control function is backed up by an analog stand-by module. IAP also manages automated safe launch, in-flight programmable way point navigation, and operation of payloads. It has been proven in more than 20 test flights of Nishant. Ground Station for UAVs.
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Several configurations of ground stations have been developed for UAV programmes to meet diverse needs of aerial targets and reconnaissance missions. Integrated telemetry, telecommand and tracking system designs have been realised. The air vehicle controller and the payload operator are provided with cues in the form of synthetic electronic displays which provide flight and trajectory data.
Mission Payloads for UAVs.
Test and Evaluation of Aircraft Avionics and Weapon Systems
Several indigenously developed payloads are now available for UAV applications, such as electro-optic imaging, laser ranging and designation system, airborne laser ranger and marker ALARM , and airborne infra-red target sensor. The gimballed payload assembly GPA , a two-axes stabilised platform for CCD camera and laser range finder payloads, has been developed to provide azimuth and elevation stabilisation of the sight line against aircraft motion and jitter.
An advanced correlation technique-based video tracker has been integrated with this platform for automatic target tracking.
The entire system can be installed on manned or unmanned aircraft. The system can also be configured to carry different electro-optic payload combinations. Two types of scoring systems have been developed as a part of Lakshya aerial target tow body electronics for estimation of the miss distance. The acoustic miss distance indicator AMDI , which utilises the over pressure produced by the supersonic projectile to estimate the miss distance, provides both distance and sector information.
The revolution in avionics has been brought out by the developments in the electronics industry which has reached on chip packing densities of 15, transistors per square millimetre. Frequencies, normally encountered in RF circuits, are now driving digital circuits in the range of hundreds of MHz. Also, the avionics equipment have to work at very high temperatures, acceleration and vibration environment. For example, KADECU has been designed to be cooled by the aircraft fuel circulating through its chassis to enable it to work at o ambient. DRDO has established state-of-the-art tools and facilities in the area of RF circuit design, analog and digital circuit design, and thermal design.
Detailed design and analysis are performed using logic circuit simulation and VHDL-based complex circuit design tools. Facilities for hybrid microwave circuit development and fabrication have been established. Some of the special components that need mention here are:. Broad band high power gridded, helix travelling wave tubes TWTs have been designed and developed in association with BEL.
T he Aircraft Systems Panel of the Aeronautics Research and Development Board promotes research in the field of avionics by sponsoring projects at academic and research institutes. The panel invites proposals for projects in areas such as:. Radar: Radar environmental simulation, advanced signal processing etc.
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Navigation Systems: Hybrid Systems, Kalman filters etc. Cockpit Displays: Advanced graphic engines and algorithms etc. An integral part of the MOSA design strategy will be providing easy access to reusable design fragments, including examples from which pieces can be extracted and examples of applied interface standards illustrating how they can be applied to solve difficult problems especially the incorporation of advanced technology that might easily be considered incompatible or in conflict with the standards.
Whether organized by case-based reasoning or some other method, they must engage a user in a dialogue that results in valuable suggestions that can be applied to real designs. Rather than a universal database accessible to all, reuse libraries should be developed by industry and should remain in their domain.
Because of reduced production buys and cyclical updates, aircraft fleets are not all in the same configuration. Program extensions often cause the same problem, especially at the component level where parts can become obsolete even before the retrofitting is complete. Currently, the Air Force has no institutionalized configuration-management processes, tools, or requirements.
In fact, configuration management is not even integrated with logistics, maintenance, training, testing, and operations processes. This issue will have to be addressed by a top-down management approach. Testing represents an increasing percentage of costs for both DMS fixes and for system upgrades e. The proper application of MOSA allows confinement of both failures and changes,. The impact on TOC could be significant. With advances in modern design tools, however, an affordable solution may be in sight. These tools provide high-fidelity emulation of detailed circuit operation, and, with some additional effort, could be formulated as stand-alone digital models of the product.
Combined with the disciplined interface definitions inherent in MOSA, these models have the potential to streamline the verification and validation process. The committee suggests that avionics suppliers be encouraged to construct high-fidelity surrogates for expensive hardware to facilitate system-level testing by including this as a source-selection criterion. An analogous recertification problem is currently being addressed jointly by the FAA and suppliers of commercial avionics systems, with the emphasis on the reuse and multiple application of software modules.
The commercial sector has also developed modeling, simulation, and diagnostic tools to ensure the integrity of certification processes and significantly improve the efficiency and shorten the cycle time of avionics testing. The processes established by the FAA and the commercial avionics industry could be used, at least in part, as a model for the Air Force's strategy for requalification testing.
Inventories of defense-unique parts were naturally depleted, and small orders became unduly expensive as production lines were configured for new markets. Low-volume redesigns of the parts presented huge economic penalties. Thus, both DoD and suppliers were in a losing situation. To cope with this situation today, the Air Force and industry have adopted brute force methods, such as parts substitutions, platform cannibalization, and technology upgrades, as demand requires.
Almost everything is done in an unplanned, uncoordinated, reactive way in a budget-constrained environment. Faced with a somewhat similar situation, the commercial airline industry has resolved the problem through a straightforward analysis of return on investment. When the unreliability of an aircraft or the cost of spares and repairs become unacceptable, and if an alternate solution can be found, the airlines upgrade their avionics components and systems.